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Macroevolutionary patterns can be produced by combinations of diverse and even oppositional dynamics. A growing body of data indicates that secondary simplifications of molecular and cellular structures are common. Some major diversifications in eukaryotes have occurred because of loss and minimalisation; numerous episodes in prokaryote evolution have likewise been driven by the reduction of structure. After examining a range of examples of secondary simplification and its consequences across the tree of life, Iñaki and his collaborators address how macroevolutionary explanations might incorporate simplification as well as complexification, and adaptive as well as nonadaptive dynamics.
O’Malley, M.A.; Wideman, J.G.; Ruiz-Trillo, I. (2016). Losing Complexity: The Role of Simplification in Macroevolution. Trends in Ecology & Evolution