News from ISGlobal
How do transport modes influence people’s health? A new study led by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal) has concluded that cycling is the mode of transport associated with the greatest health benefits: better self-perceived general health, better mental health and fewer feelings of loneliness.
The study formed part of the EU funded PASTA project and was carried out in seven European cities: Antwerp, Barcelona, London, Örebro, Rome, Vienna and Zurich. A baseline questionnaire was completed by more than 8,800 people, 3,500 of whom also completed a final survey, on transport and health that included questions about what transport modes they used, how often they used the different transport modes, and how they perceived their general health. The mental-health section of the survey focused on the four major dimensions of mental health (anxiety, depression, loss of emotional control, and psychological well-being), vitality (energy level and fatigue) and perceived stress. The survey also asked about participants’ social relations, including questions about loneliness and contact with friends and/or family.
The transport modes assessed in the study were car, motorbike, public transport, bicycle, electric bicycle and walking. The effects of these transport modes were analysed using both single- and multiple-mode models.
The findings, published in Environment International, show that cycling yielded the best results in every analysis. Bicycles were associated with better self-perceived general health, better mental health, greater vitality, lower self-perceived stress and fewer feelings of loneliness. The second most beneficial transport mode, walking, was associated with good self-perceived general health, greater vitality, and more contact with friends and/or family.
“Previous studies have either analysed transport modes in isolation or compared various transport modes to each other,” commented Ione Avila-Palencia, ISGlobal researcher and lead author of the study. “Ours is the first study to associate the use of multiple urban transport modes with health effects such as mental health and social contact.” “This approach allowed us to analyse the effects more realistically, since today’s city dwellers tend to use more than one mode of transport,” she added. “It also allowed us to highlight the positive effect of walking, which in previous studies was not very conclusive.”
Ione Avila-Palencia, Luc Int Panis, Evi Dons, Mailin Gaupp-Berghausen, Elisabeth Raser, Thomas Götschi, Regine Gerike, Christian Brand, Audrey de Nazelle, Juan Pablo Orjuela, Esther Anaya-Boig, Erik Stigell, Sonja Kahlmeier, Francesco Iacorossi, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen. The effects of transport mode use on self-perceived health, mental health, and social contact measures: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Environment International. August 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.08.002